History: an Art or Science? How different are they?

Conrad Shawcross is the Artist in residence at the Science Museum, London. The Science Museum is one of many scientific institutions that see a value in having artists in residence to engage their audience.

This is an age old question, and as I was trying to put together a presentation on it for University, I’m not planning on trying to answer it at length here.

But while mulling it over I began to realise just how intermingled the two disciplines are today.

History is a bit of a confusing subject, it sits under the branch of learning called Humanities (defined as the study of human culture), different History masters courses can get you a MA or a MSc, and funding for the Arts and Humanities Research Council comes from the Science and Innovation Group, part of the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. None of these points help.

Most arguments of this nature seem to focus on whether or not History is a science, assuming that if you are not a science you must be an art. But I’m not entirely convinced they are exact opposites. Both generally speaking build on previous knowledge or thought, and Postmodernists are able to demonstrate cultural influences on scientific thought as much as artistic, I’ve included a picutre of a piece of work by Conrad Shawcross, and here is a link to an interesting article about Salvador Dalí’s relationship and interest in science. Some of the most interesting pieces of modern art can come out of scientific influences, and scientists can get inspiration or that spark from the arts. Thomas Kuhn demonstrated that even scientific discoveries have been influenced by cultural factors, and it is clear that some sciences are heavily influenced by interpretation. It seems to be increasingly important for science to borrow from the arts to help engage a wider audience with their work and from the large amount of ‘popular’ science books out by authors like Brian Cox and Robert Winston it seems to be a healthy relationship.

I’ll finish up with a letter by Gregory Petsko, a Professor in Biochemistry and Chemistry, recently published in the Genome Biology journal arguing that science needs the arts and humanities:

One of the things I’ve written about is the way genomics is changing the world we live in. Our ability to manipulate the human genome is going to pose some very difficult questions for humanity in the next few decades, including the question of just what it means to be human. That isn’t a question for science alone; it’s a question that must be answered with input from every sphere of human thought, including – especially including – the humanities and arts. Science unleavened by the human heart and the human spirit is sterile, cold, and self-absorbed. It’s also unimaginative: some of my best ideas as a scientist have come from thinking and reading about things that have, superficially, nothing to do with science. If I’m right that what it means to be human is going to be one of the central issues of our time, then universities that are best equipped to deal with it, in all its many facets, will be the most important institutions of higher learning in the future. You’ve just ensured that yours won’t be one of them.

The rest of the letter can be found here.

This letter was written in reaction to the State University of New York at Albany deciding to get rid of its departments of French, Italian, Classics, Russian and Theater Arts. As cuts loom over the UK and both the sciences and arts feel the need to defend their purpose and position it is worth remembering the similarities and benefits of both.

4 Responses to History: an Art or Science? How different are they?

  1. Pingback: Atomic Bomb Effects

  2. m s dinakar says:

    History is about everything past. Naturally, scientific past is part of history. As we evolved, the scientific perceptions and technological inventions too evolved along signifying a pregnant past of ideas to build upon by the subsequent generations. Science has always been influenced by the cultural and socio-economic and political milieu of the times.

    Though for academic purpose and easy understanding, we have compartmentalized our pursuits, in reality our evolution is constantly influenced by the cyclic feedbacks of knowledge past and present.

    We can easily cite a number of examples in the last one hundred years wherein science, culture and history have combined in propelling us forward. If the origin of WWII could be rested on politics, it led to war which necessitated scientific and technological developments for offence and defence with spin-offs to civil society then and later. What began for war purpose as ENIAC evolved in a multiplicity of ways: ephemeralized hardware, interactive software, multimedia technologies, virtual realities, etc. All these in turn were build on historical knowledge that preceded them and subsequently techno-products are influencing us a great deal now with “native digitals” coming out with differing cultural perspectives.

    A closer look into how history evolved reveals that it had been artistic in presentation and scientific in its evaluation of veracity of findings/discoveries. Historical research has attained a fantastic rigor on account of scientific tools even as history remains a prototypical resource model.

    Without HISTORY we would not have and we might lose that singular reality – our CONSCIENCE – that has been guiding our species all along its cultural evolution. No doubt today we want our scientific experiments to be conscientious and overall we call for “ecological conscience” – more eloquently and aptly put by biologist Paul Ehrlich and knowledge analyst Robert Ornstein as: conscient co-evolution!

  3. Pingback: The Artist-Scientist in the history of the Submarine Telegraph « The History Student: Kathleen's History and Culture blog

  4. chiweshe kundayi says:

    personally,i think history is both a science and an art.they work together.we stugy history from science and we study science from history.

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